Ching

Title

Ching

Video


Alternative title

Jing, Taegŭm

Physical description

The ching is the larger of two gongs used in Korean percussion music. It is made of brass and ranges in size from approximately 35 to 40 cm (13½ to 1 ½ in) in diameter, with an inward-sloping rim of approximately 8 to 10 cm (3 to 3½ in) deep. It is approximately 3 mm thick. The size of the ching varies according to its usage: the ching used in p’ungmul nori (farmer’s band music) is usually smaller than the ching used in court, Buddhist, or ritual music, in which cases it is sometimes referred to as the taegŭm (literally, “large metal’), as opposed to the kkwaenggwari, the small gong, which is sometimes known as the sogŭm (“small metal”).

In court music, and also in the contemporary genre of samul nori (concert stage-adaptation of p’ungmul nori), the ching can be seen being played in a seated position, sometimes held in one hand by a small cord looped through two holes at the top, or suspended on a wooden frame. In the genre of p’ungmul nori, the ching is carried around by its handle while the player engages in a procession or dance movements with the other percussionists. In the genre of sinawi (shamanic instrumental music), the ching may be held in the hand, not by its handle, allowing for more possibilities in sound quality. The ching is struck with a mallet, the head of which is wrapped in cloth, and thus it produces a soft tone.

Musical, Cultural, and Social Contexts

Although the ching is seemingly the least “active” of Korean percussion instruments, especially compared to the relatively complex patterns played out by the changgo (hourglass drum), kkwaenggwari (small gong), and puk (barrel drum), it carries the vital role of underlining and punctuating the main beats in the cycles of changdan (rhythmic patterns) that give structure to the music. It not only provides a resonant base for the other instruments, its tone also sustains a unity within the ensemble as it “wraps” the sounds of the other instruments. Indeed many p’ungmul nori musicians consider the ching to be the most important instrument in a percussion ensemble.

Historical background

The ching has probably been in use in Korea longer than the smaller gong (kkwaenggwari). It is featured in many genres of Korean music including shamanic, Confucian, Buddhist, military, and folk musics. In the military context of earlier times, the ching was used to signal retreat during battles.

Notation

Traditionally, Korean percussion instruments used a notational system called the Chǒngganbo, which can be traced back to the fifteenth century. The Chǒngganbo is a framework of vertical and horizontal lines that intersect to create small boxes that are read in columns (top to bottom, right to left), with icons or symbols representing various strokes placed within each box, one box being equal to one beat. In ensemble music, one column would carry the notation for one instrument, and one line (i.e. one segment from top to bottom) would denote one rhythmic cycle. Chǒngganbo also allows for subdivision of beats within one box if necessary. The Chǒngganbo system is still in use today, although Korean percussion instruments also use western staff notation. The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts in Korea uses and prints materials in both systems.

Geography

Korea

Classification

111.241.11 (idiophone) Bossed gongs, flat gongs (with flange) and intermediate types

Ensemble

Korean Drumming Ensemble

Dimensions

Diameter: 35 to 40 cm (13½ to 1 ½ in)
Inward-sloping rim: 8 to 10 cm (3 to 3½ in) deep
Approximately 3 mm thick.

Materials

Brass

Bibliography

Hahn, Myung-Hee. 1998. A Study of Musical Instruments in Korean Traditional Music, translated by Park, Il-Woo, Seoul: The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts, Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Howard, Keith. 1988. Korean Musical Instruments: A Practical Guide, Seoul, Korea: Se-Kwang Music Publishing Co.

--------. 1995. Korean Musical Instruments, New York: Oxford University Press.

Killick, Andrew. 2002. “Musical Instruments of Korea.” In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Vol. 7. East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea, edited by Robert Provine, Yoshihiko Tokumaru, and J. Lawrence Witzleben, New York: Routledge, 821-31.

Lee, Hye-Ku. 1981. Essays on Traditional Korean Music, translated and edited by Robert Provine, Seoul, Korea: Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch.

Pratt, Keith. 1987. Korean Music: Its History and Performance, London: Faber Music Ltd.

Sŏng, Kyŏng-rin. 1973. “Korean Musical Instruments.” In Survey of Korean Arts: Traditional Music. Seoul, Korea: The National Academy of Arts.

Contributors

Hae Joo Kim (2005)

Collection

Citation

“Ching,” Wesleyan University Virtual Instrument Museum 2.0, accessed May 21, 2024, https://wesomeka.wesleyan.edu/vim2/items/show/45.